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Milk sugar is made of glucose and a simple sugar called galactose. The carbohydrates in starches, such as bread, pasta, rice, and similar foods, are long chains of different simple sugar molecules. Sucrose, lactose, carbohydrates, and other complex sugars must be broken down into simple sugars by enzymes in the digestive tract before the body can absorb them.


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Yes, it’s possible to develop headaches or dizziness if your blood glucose level is too low – usually below 70 mg/dL. You can read about the other symptoms hypoglycemia causes in this article. Scientists don’t have firm answers yet but there appears to be a correlation between hearing loss and diabetes. According to the American Diabetes Association, a recent study found that hearing loss was twice as common in people with diabetes versus those who didn’t have diabetes. Also, the rate of hearing loss in people with prediabetes was 30% higher compared with those who had normal blood glucose levels. Scientists think diabetes damages the blood vessels in the inner ear, but more research is needed.

In some people with Type 2 diabetes, insulin may be needed to help glucose move from your bloodstream to your body’s cells where it’s needed for energy. You may or may not need insulin if you have gestational diabetes. Learning about the disease and actively participating in the treatment is important, since complications are far less common and less severe in people who have well-managed blood sugar levels. Per the American College of Physicians, the goal of treatment is an HbA1C level of 7-8%. Attention is also paid to other health problems that may accelerate the negative effects of diabetes. These include smoking, high blood pressure, metabolic syndrome obesity, and lack of regular exercise.

People with type 2 diabetes do not make or use insulin effectively. According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases , this is the most common type of diabetes, and it has strong links with obesity. People with diabetes who can share their experiences living with and managing their condition. Cleveland Clinic’s Endocrinology & Metabolism Institute is committed to providing the highest quality healthcare for patients with diabetes, endocrine and metabolic disorders, and obesity. Eat a healthy diet, such as the Mediterranean or Dash diet.

People with MODY often can control it without using insulin. All forms of diabetes increase the risk of long-term complications. These typically develop after many years (10–20) but may be the first symptom in those who have otherwise not received a diagnosis before that time. Boost your knowledge by understanding the symptoms, risk factors and stages of kidney disease. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after pregnancy, but once you’ve had gestational diabetes, your chances are higher that it will happen in future pregnancies. In some women pregnancy uncovers Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes and these women will need to continue diabetes treatment after pregnancy.

Currently, no one knows how to prevent type 1 diabetes. Part of having diabetes is knowing how to monitor your glucose. It is an essential key to good blood sugar control because it is the only way to know (between doctor’s appointments) where you stand with your diabetes control. “Do I have to?” or “Ouch that hurts!” are common sentiments I hear from patients. The term “diabetes” or “to pass through” was first used in 230 BCE by the Greek Apollonius of Memphis. The disease was considered rare during the time of the Roman empire, with Galen commenting he had only seen two cases during his career.